IFADEM is an innovative operation, a training or internship scheme combining active educational methods, technological means, customized training content, local human resources and international expertise.
Zones et public cible d'IFADEM
IFADEM cible en priorité les zones rurales des pays car ces zones défavorisées demandent un investissement particulier et le manque d’enseignants formés est un obstacle majeur à la réalisation des objectifs de l’Éducation pour tous. L’Unesco évalue à 18 millions dans le monde, dont 3,8 en Afrique subsaharienne, les enseignants supplémentaires qui seront nécessaires dans le cycle primaire d’ici à 2015.
Reconnaissance de la formation
La réussite aux épreuves de fin de parcours de formation IFADEM fait l’objet d’une reconnaissance officielle de la part du ministère de l’Éducation partenaire et est prise en compte pour l’avancement professionnel des enseignants. Différentes évaluations sont organisées par le ministère de l’Éducation et par IFADEM pour vérifier si les objectifs de la formation sont bien atteints.
La formation continue des enseignants
Les formations de recyclage, destinées aux enseignants en poste qui n'ont pas de formation professionnelle sont relativement récentes dans les systèmes éducatifs africains, mais elles sont appelées à se développer rapidement si on souhaite que chaque enseignant en fonction ait suivi une formation professionnelle (Pôle de Dakar, Le défi enseignant, 2009).
IFADEM begins its action in a country by experimenting on an average target public of 500 teachers in one or two provinces (or regions). If the evaluation of this first phase is positive, a second phase may be launched with a larger number of teachers, calling on the contribution of technical and financial partners.
In each country, IFADEM organises planning missions, consults political decision-makers and educational authorities, travels to the regions, meets with intermediary bodies and teachers, and studies school curricula and continuing education policies. A training scheme is then elaborated based on the studies of a co-constructive seminar, giving special priority to national actors in basic education and continuous training; it also calls upon the collaboration of technical and financial partners.
Hybrid training (alternating distance/face to face)
IFADEM proposes the general framework of a training programme, but this is substantially adapted to the scholastic and administrative reality of each country. Its definitive components and characteristics (educational model, duration, target public, etc.) are implemented after an analysis of needs and the launching of an assessment—by the ministry of education—of a continuing education strategy that integrates the potential contribution of open-distance training.
The general outline, implemented since 2008, is a training course of 200 to 300 hours, usually spread over nine months, mainly self-training and open-distance, but punctuated by two or three group sessions—at the beginning, (middle) and end of the training period—organised over two or three days during school holidays. Teachers are trained while they go on teaching their class.
The duration of training is an essential condition for ensuring an improvement in the quality of education. However, IFADEM training content—produced locally—may be used again for other purposes or modified for shorter training courses.
Content developers and secondary school teachers provide educational support during group sessions. At other times teachers are not left to themselves, and continue to be supervised. Self-training is insufficient, and must be supplemented by decentralized and local tutorials, close to the teacher’s workplace. School inspectors, headmasters or educational advisors provide these proximity tutorials. They make it possible to provide support for teachers in their work, sustain motivation, help them overcome difficulties and regularly get them to meet together in small groups.
Each teacher personally receives a teaching package containing:
- Training materials, specifically produced in each country by a team of content developers, assisted by francophone university expertise. They consist of five to seven printed training handbooks corresponding to about forty hours of standard training, designed according to the programme and training topic priorities defined by the partner ministry;
- A dictionary and a grammar book;
- Some educational materials used in the training programme (e.g. Leuk le Lièvre “speaking cards” in Benin);
- Audio educational material (using MP3, cell phone, Smartphone or radio with CD player).
Moreover, IFADEM offers trainee teachers beginner computer and group-session Internet courses.
This general framework has already evolved in relation to the first experiments in Benin and Burundi between 2008 and 2010. IFADEM will continue to innovate according to the requests of partner ministries, the analysis of ongoing needs, and the adaptation of new technological and teaching tools to these same needs.